Pathogenesis of rabies virus infection in dogs clinical. The mechanism of how rabies infection induces neurological dysfunction in the host remains unclear. Manjunatha reddyd, shibani pandaa and kuldeep dhama a adivision of pathology, icarindian veterinary research institute, bareilly, uttar pradesh, india. Rabies is found throughout the world, with the exception of antarctica. Use of a reduced 4dose vaccine schedule for postexposure. Pathogenesis of rabies europe pmc article europe pubmed. The commonest mode of transmission in man is by the bite of a rabid animal or the contamination of scratch wounds by virus infected saliva. Oct 24, 2019 acip, cdc, recommendations to prevent human rabies, vaccines, viral pathogenesis, surveillance in the united states, confirmed human cases in the u. Get a printable copy pdf file of the complete article 1.
Pathogenesis of rabies virus infection in dogs makonnen fekadu. Figure 1 depicts an idealized outline of dynamics of rabies virus pathogenesis in the presence and absence of pepmediated immune responses. Clinical stages of rabies can progress from incubation period 5 days. The location and progress of rabies virus isolated from a coyote canis latrans was studied in experimentally infected mice. Early studies in rabies pathogenesis, which were performed in order to establish the pathways and rate of viral spread, involved amputation of the tail or leg of an animal proximal to the site of inoculation with a fixed or street wildtype strain of rabies virus.
Rv pathogenesis, like that of other viruses, is a multigenic trait. The dogs are the major reason behind this, approximately 99% human deaths caused by. Pathogenesis of rabies rabies is a viral disease which affects all mammals. These studies indicated that 4 vaccine doses in combination with rabies immune globulin rig elicited adequate. In addition, high titers of rabies virus can be produced in muco. Rabies is a severe viral infection of the brain and spinal cord that is transmitted by infected animals. Comparative pathogenesis of rabies in bats and carnivores. Rupprecht1 1 division of highconsequence pathogens and pathology, centers for disease control and prevention, atlanta, ga, usa 2 united states. The molecular biology of rabies consists of bullet shaped virus with helical symmetry that has a length of approximately 180 nm. Craig hooper,heather carbaugh,zhen fang fu,hilary koprowski, and bernhard dietzschold center for neurovirology, department of microbiology and immunology, thomas jefferson university. It is usually contracted through a bite from an infected animal, though transmission can occur if the virus is introduced onto any mucous membrane eyes, nose, mouth.
For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Rabies is an almost invariably fatal disease that can present as classic furious rabies or paralytic rabies. The acip rabies workgroup used an evidencebased process for consideration of a reduced vaccination regimen in human rabies pep. Novel role of sarm1 mediated axonal degeneration in the. The authors have investigated the spread of fixed and street strains of rabies virus from the site of injection to the central nervous system and salivary glands in various animal species. But also other potential vectors for bartonella transmission, such as ticks and biting flies, have been identified.
The pathogenesis and pathology of rabies virus infection. Related articles, links transmission experiments with bat rabies isolates. In contrast, cultures of puri ed hippocampal neurons showed apoptosis in over 90% of. Pdf on sep 1, 2002, alan c jackson and others published rabies pathogenesis find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Human rabies is a disease with almost 100% fatal outcome death usually after seven to ten days from the start of the symptoms. The causative agent is rabies virus rv, a negativestranded rna virus of the rhabdovirus family. Fluorescent antibody fa techniques were used, and nerve tissues from infected mice, selected at timed intervals postinfection, were passaged further in mice. Pathogenesis of rabies table 1 sparing effect of removing portions of sciatic andor saphenous nerves on outcome of infection in animals inoculated in the footpad with rabies virusa neurectomy sciatic nerve only sapherious nerve only sciatic and saphenous nerves controls mice guineapigs rats hamsters foxes dogs cvs s lep.
The greeks called rabies lyssa or lytta, which means frenzy or madness. Viral mechanisms that have evolved to minimise damage to the cns but. Rabies is a disease affecting all mammals, including man, caused by a virus that attacks the central nervous system, including the brain. Schematic of dynamics of rabies virus pathogenesis. Rhabdovirus, lyssavirus genus the family rhabdoviridae consists of more than 185 different viruses isolated from both plants and animals. Rabies transmission via transplanted neurologic tissues corneas and solid organs has also been documented.
Neuroinvasiveness and neurotropism are the main features that define the pathogenesis of rabies. The dogs are the major reason behind this, approximately 99% human deaths caused by dogs bites. It affects all warmblooded animals and the disease is prevalent throughout the. Pathogenesis of rabies infection, pathogenesis of rhabdoviruses. Rabies virus, epidemiology, transmission and freeroaming cats. The causative agent is rabies virus rv, a negativestranded rna virus of the. The dog is estimated to be responsible for more than 50,000 human deaths annually, posing an extremely serious public and animal health problem. Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease and it is transmitted by bites of a rabid animal. Rabies is a central nervous system cns disease that is almost invariably fatal. Rabies is a zoonotic disease that remains an important public health problem worldwide and causes more than 70,000 human deaths each year. Immediately after challenge 32 ld50 of the injected virus were demonstrable in the brain, but 6 hours later no virus could be found there. The presence of rabies virus in the central nervous system was first detected in the lumbar segment of the spinal cord. By far the predominant target of rabies virus infection in vivo is the neuron.
Pdf rabies is a zoonotic, fatal and progressive neurological infection caused by rabies virus of the genus lyssavirus and family. Clinical stages of rabies can progress from incubation period 5. Rabies virus, epidemiology, transmission and freeroaming. Rabies is an almost uniformly fatal neurologic illness caused by rabies virus which is typically transmitted by a bite from a rabid animal two main clinical forms, encephalitic and paralytic characteristic pathologic features include negri bodies, which are intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic inclusions found in neurons of the hippocampus and cerebellum. The role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of rabies the pathogenicity of rv correlates inversely with its capacity to induce neuronal apoptosis. Studies on the pathogenesis of fixed rabies virus in rats. Most dogs experimentally infected with street rabies virus showed clinical signs of rabies before death, but up to 18% of the dogs died without showing detectable signs of illness.
Symptoms may include unexplained aggression, impaired locomotion, varying degrees of paralysis, and extreme depression or viciousness. P comparative pathogenesis of rabies and rabieslike. From the experimental observations it can be concluded that the rabies virus travels alongorin thenervesfromtheperipheryto thecentralnervoussystemandvice versa. Paris 1985 1985, 6 e, 373386 the pathogenesis and pathology of rabies virus infection by f. Up to 20% of dogs recovered without any supportive treatment. A better understanding of rabies pathogenesis may be helpful in making future advances in the therapy of human rabies. Viral and rickettsial zoonoses branch, division of viral diseases, center for infectious diseases, centers for disease control. Rabies pathogenesis 268 ac jackson spinal cord cultures did not survive more than 2 days. Rabies typically has its greatest effect on the brain. Manjunatha reddyd, shibani pandaa and kuldeep dhama a adivision of pathology, icarindian veterinary research institute, bareilly. Acip, cdc, recommendations to prevent human rabies, vaccines, viral pathogenesis, surveillance in the united states, confirmed human cases in the u.
In developing countries, the primary source of transmission to humans is the dog. In most cases the disease is transmitted via the bite of rabid animals which shed infectious virus with their saliva. Rabies is a zoonotic, fatal and progressive neurological infection caused by rabies virus of the genus lyssavirus and family rhabdoviridae. Jun 21, 2019 rabies is caused by a neurotropic virus of the family rhabdoviridae, genus lyssavirus, subgroup rabies virus. In contrast, cultures of puri ed hippocampal neurons showed apoptosis in over 90% of neurons within 3 days. The door to studies of rabies pathogenesis was first opened in 1804 by zinke 3, who experimentally transmitted rabies by swabbing the saliva of rabid dogs onto. The existence of subpopulations with different biological properties within the cvs24 strain of rabies virus has profound implications for the pathogenesis of rabies virus. Pdf rabies epidemiology, pathogenesis, public health concerns. Comparative pathogenesis of rabies in bats and carnivores, and implications for spillover to humans lineke begeman, corine geurtsvankessel, stefan finke, conrad m freuling, marion koopmans, thomas muller, tom j h ruigrok, thijs kuiken batacquired rabies is becoming increasingly common, and its diagnosis could be missed partly because its clinical. The rabies virus encoded five proteins, namely glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein and rna dependent rna transcriptase protein. Rabies occurs in more than 150 countries and territories.
Rabies epidemiology, pathogenesis, public health concerns. The results indicate conclusively that rabies virus is ordinarily transmitted from the site ofexposure to the central nervous system via the peripheral nerves but that. Special issue bats multidisciplinary approach to epizootiology and pathogenesis of bat rabies viruses in the united states j. The causative agent of rabies is rabies virus rv, a negativestranded rna virus of the rhabdovirus family. Nevertheless, it has been shown that rabies virus can infect myocytes before the virus infection reaches neurons in the spinal cord or dorsal root ganglia 1, 2. Mcclure this investigation was supported by the world health organization and by a united states public health service research grant no. Rabies disease, etiology and pathogenesis veterinary office of. Due to their ubiquitous nature and spread through animal transport, fleas pose a worldwide risk for cats and dogs to become infected with bartonella spp. Rabies infection causes severe neurological dysfunction in the host resulting in paralysis, cognitive deficits and behavioural abnormalities.
Rabies virus is an enveloped, singlestranded rna virus with bullet shaped or rodshaped morphology. The causative agent of rabies is rabies virus rv, a. Rupprecht1 1 division of highconsequence pathogens and pathology, centers for disease control and prevention. In dogs showing signs, rabies was not invariably fatal. Recent findings indicate that in addition to the rv g protein viral elements that regulate gene expression, especially expression of the l gene, are also likely to play a role in. Rabies is an acute, progressive viral encephalomyelitis that principally affects carnivores and bats, although any mammal can be affected. Rabies virus from inoculation in the left hind foot pad was detected by fa as. Studies of rabies pathogenesis began in 1804, when zinke took a small brush and transmitted rabies by swabbing the saliva of a rabid dog onto some fresh wounds he. Author summary lyssavirus including rabies still causes devastating loss of human life every year and many of its victims are children under the age of 15.
By far the predominant target of rabies virus infection in vivo is the neuron 1. Asaresult ofinvestigations carried outduringthe past 10years onthepathogenesis ofpoliomyelitis, it became essential to reconsider also the problem of the pathogenesis of rabies. The virus is usually transmitted to humans by infected saliva through the bite of a rabid animal. Recovery has been reported in only a few patients, most of whom were infected with bat rabies virus variants, and has been associated with promptness of host immune response and spontaneous immune virus clearance. Studies on the pathogenesis of rabies behaviour ofthe virus in the cns in the initial experiment, 50 mice were infected with 1600 ld50 by the intracerebral route. The virus enters the body through transdermal inoculation i.
Fleas play a major role in the transmission of bartonella, particularly in felines b. In addition, high titers of rabies virus can be produced in mucogenic acinary cells of the salivary glands during the final phase. Transmission and pathogenesis rabies bulletin europe. Enright 3 1 from the department of epidemiology and preventive medicine, school of veterinary medicine, university of california, davis, california 95616, u. This difference in survival was not dependent on the presence of factors in the culture medium. Rabies virus structure and pathogenesis learn microbiology. Rabies control units in india launched by agriculture ministry of india in 6th five year plan aiming 100%rabies free india by th 5 year plan 30 rabies control units where set up overall chargesenior officer of animal husbandry dept each unitveterinary surgeon,supervisor,10 dog catchers each unit provided with a diesel van. Murphy division o viral diseases, centers for disease control, atlanta, ga 30333 usa after devoting four years to the study of rabies, pasteur said. Investigations were made on the spread of fixed rabies virus after its inoculation into the rear footpads of rats. However, other routes have been implicated in the past, such as through mucous membranes of the mouth, conjunctiva, anus and genitalia.1673 279 1529 993 1419 1399 913 1386 841 1517 1426 949 1437 912 271 1403 399 600 1498 607 88 1572 1101 927 89 639 1410 822 1159 670 320 584 279 1178 112 486 994 1143 718 296