Molecular identification of three of the most important mealybug species hemiptera. Pest biology and management students will answer 810 questions on insect, mite, mollusc, and nematode pest biology sampling, distribution, life cycle, damage and management. Pagka karon wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya. Planococcus citri an overview sciencedirect topics. This paper presents the first complete study of the life history, chromosomes, and general habits of the cactus mealybug, spilococcus cactearum mckenzie. Developmental and reproductive biology of planococcus minor. Planococcus citri commonly known as citrus mealybug is a polyphagus species known from all zoogeographical regions 1. It is a common pest of ornamental plants, and infests at. Consider the mealybug planococcus citri, a multicellular eukaryote.
These efforts concluded in the galapagos ant conference, titled exotic ants. It has been reported on over 200 hostplant species belonging to 191 genera and 82 families, and can seriously damage many crops, particularly citrus and glasshouse tomatoes. Life cycle duration egg to egglaying adult ranges from 20 to 44 days betrem, 1936. Nymphal development in males and females was completed in 20. Molecular evidence of polyandry in the citrus mealybug. Information on the biology and establishment of several parasitoids incuding. Surprisingly, within these tremblaya bacterial cells, which lie within the mealybug cells, live moranella endobia type. The citrus snow scale, unaspis citri comstock, is an armored scale belonging to the family diaspididae. Planococcus citri feeds both on the phloem sieve elements and on xylem. It was introduced to the americas during the second half of the 20th century. Egyptian academic journal of biological sciences 31, 3947.
It is one of the most common pests in nearly all greenhouses and nurseries, where it attacks a wide range of ornamental. Life history studies of the cactus mealybug, spilococcus. Bacterium planococcus halocryophilus offers clues about. The occurrence of polyandry in planococcus citri, presumed by earlier observations of mating behavior, was confirmed using microsatellite genotyping of pools of over 400 eggs resulting from. Novel synthesis of planococcus citri pheromone springerlink. Pdf the biology of three mealybug species hemiptera.
The citrus plants of all the ages even the pruned young citrus seedlings in cage house and nursery besides grownup trees are attacked by mealy bugs. College of agriculture cooperative extension, university of arizona. Planococcus citri, commonly known as the citrus mealybug, is a species of mealybugs native to asia. The citrus mealybug a shorttailed mealybug is a softbodied pseudococcid. Effects of delayed mating on the reproductive biology of. Pseudococcidae has been a problem on chrysanthemums and biological control has been sought as a solution whitcomb, 1940. First, it was identified as the common, widespread, citrus mealybug planococcus citri risso. The animals for which students are responsible to know biology and management are listed in table 1 preceded by double asterisk. Biological control of citrus mealybug, planococcus citri. In the mealy bug, planococcus citri, following high dosage paternal irradiation 60,000 to 120,000 rep, the survivors are mostly female about 30 to 40% of the unirradiated control value whereas very few males survive about 5% of control value.
The female had three and the males four nymphal instars. The biology of planococcus citri risso, pseudococcus calceolarias maskell and pseudococcus longispinus targioni tozzetti on citrus limon l. The citrus mealybug, is a cosmopolitan pest and affects many crops. The antennae are eightsegmented, the body bears 18 pairs of cerarii, with the anal pair longest.
It belongs to the class insecta, order hemiptera, family pseudococcidae, genus planococcus and species citri. Planococcus citri commonly known as citrus mealybug is a polyphagus species known from all zoogeographical regions. Until the early 1980s the pest was frequently misidentified as the citrus mealybug, planococcus citri risso. Heterochromatinization proceeds as a wave from one pole bottom right of the embryo, where nuclei show a fully developed chromocenter, toward the other one top left, where nuclei still lack a.
Later, it was determined as a related philippine species, p. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the creative commons cc0 license. Planococcus citri, in brazilian cocoa farms biology and importance of two eucharitid parasites of wasmannia and solenopsis impact of paratrechina fulva on other ant species. This document is eny920 in920, one of a series of the entomology and nematology department, florida cooperative extension service, institute of food and agricultural sciences, university of florida. Biological control of citrus mealybug, planococcus citri risso using coccinellid predator, cryptolaemus montrouzieri muls. The total duration of development of female mealybug was 28. Black garden ant tending citrus mealybug 15876770928. It are rubber dispensers containing the speciesspecific sex pheromone released by the female citrus mealybug. However, attack by planococcus citri results in shriveling of the tubers, making them become light and unpalatable. Pdf some biological parameters of planococcus citri on differnt. For some mealybugs, mating is probably necessary, although facultative parthenogenesis has been reported for planococcus citri risso. Mealybug chromosome cycle as a paradigm of epigenetics.
Diaspididae introduction synonymy distribution life cycle and biology description hosts economic significance management selected references introduction back to top. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method to distinguish three mealybug clades within the planococcus citrip. The ovoid body is 25 mm in length, depending on host plant, the feeding tissue and the infestation density. Planococcus a genus of pseudococcidae genus planococcus arthropod genus a genus of arthropods family pseudococcidae, pseudococcidae scalelike. Host plant records for the citrus mealybug, planococcus citri hemiptera, pseudococcidae in baghdad province, iraq. It belongs to the class insecta, order hemiptera, family pseudococcidae, genus planococcus and species citri 2. Biology of citrus mealybug, planococcus citri risso.
Espesye sa insekto nga una nga gihulagway ni antoine risso ni adtong 18 ang planococcus citri. Soft scale insects their biology, natural enemies and control. Adjuvants to improve aerial control of the citrus mealybug. Importantly, it contains the first description of the male to be published. Passionvine mealybug, planococcus minor maskell hemiptera. In the male embryo left, it is possible to observe different stages of heterochromatinization. Ang planococcus citri sakop sa kahenera nga planococcus sa kabanay nga pseudococcidae. Apart from citrus, mealy bugs attack curry leaf plant, cotton, banana, coffee, cocoa, ginger, mango etc. Insecta, hemimetabola, hemiptera, sternorrhyncha, coccomorpha, coccoidea, pseudococcidae common name.
Planococcus citri is a highly polyphagous, adaptable mealybug that can feed on. L lin, in postharvest biology and technology of tropical and subtropical fruits. Laboratory studies on the development and life table. There was a pronounced lethality of sons as well as daughters in culvivors in these high dosage cultures developed more slowly than individuals in. Combined with a suitable trap, you can detect an infestation in time and get. Based on laboratory studies on coffee leaves, male citrus mealybugs live hatching to adult death for approximately 27 days, and the females live for approximately 115 days. On cut flowerrose farms in kenya, the presence of the predatory midge diadiplosis megalamellae barnes diptera. Biology, impact and control of introduced species, held at. Biological control of citrus mealybug planococcus citri. Pseudococcidae, is one of the major pest of citrus and many other orchards crops, and ornamental plants in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. The conference planning continued, a program was developed, funds were raised, and local arrangements were made. Discovery of complex symbiotic system comprising the. It has been introduced to the rest of the world, including europe, the americas, and oceania, as an agricultural pest.
Planococcus citri, commonly known as the citrus mealybug, is a species of mealybugs native to. It is associated with citrus, but it attacks a wide range of crop plants, ornamental plants, and wild flora. Male mealy bugs, planococcus citri risso, were exposed to various dosed if gamma rays 1590,000 rep, fertility of the surviiving sons xsub 1 studied. Over the last decade there has been an increasing adoption of integrated pest management on rose farms in kenya. The citrus mealybug, planococcus citri, is a highly destructive pest of citrus, occurring only in the aerial parts of plants. Indoors the pest infests ornamentals, outdoors perennial crops in tropical and subtropical zones. Newly born nymphs were taken from egg mass of planococcus citri risso. Historically, the citrus mealybug planococcus citri risso homoptera. Finally, both of these identifications were shown to be incorrect. Planococcus definition of planococcus by the free dictionary. A recent study of this variability has revealed criteria useful for the identification of p.
Media in category planococcus citri the following 17 files are in this category, out of 17 total. Several overlapping generations occur in a year, but only one cycle springsummer is of major concern to citrus growers in florida, with peak infestations occurring in june or july. The occurrence of polyandry in planococcus citri, presumed by earlier observations of mating behavior, was confirmed using microsatellite. Natural occurrence of diadiplosis megalamellae barnes in. Pseudococcidae 3 population dynamics mealybugs are most common during the spring and early summer. Planococcus synonyms, planococcus pronunciation, planococcus translation, english dictionary definition of planococcus. Humidity will be one of the key factors to consider when using entomopathogenic nematodes epn as biological control agents. Citrus mealy bug planococcus citri risso management a. Host plant records for the citrus mealybug, planococcus. The setae on the anal lobes are up to one quarter of the bodys length, but often break up. Planococcus citri is a highly polyphagous, adaptable mealybug that can feed on many host plants in a variety of conditions, and can reproduce rapidly. The pest first appeared during the 1930s and caused serious losses to the coffee crop of kenya. Mealy bugs are destructive to citrus causing severe losses in peninsular and northeastern india.
What are the benefits of the planococcus citri pheromone. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. As a consequence, there has been a rise in secondary pests on rose plants, including in particular the citrus mealybug planococcus citri risso. Host plants, geographical distribution, natural enemies and biological studies of the citrus mealybug, planococcus citri risso hemiptera. Effect of temperature on life history and population. Pdf on jan 1, 2014, emmanuel asiedu and others published biology of planococcus citri risso hemiptera.108 131 1365 318 667 1065 1383 578 183 538 893 764 1436 480 880 315 1115 614 1248 841 1616 1499 1417 655 814 1346 1404 819 1641 1472 678 1471 1458 243 440 723 1250 801 1379 769 388