Pdf on sep 1, 2002, alan c jackson and others published rabies pathogenesis find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. The causative agent of rabies is rabies virus rv, a. Due to their ubiquitous nature and spread through animal transport, fleas pose a worldwide risk for cats and dogs to become infected with bartonella spp. Novel role of sarm1 mediated axonal degeneration in the. Rabies is an acute, progressive viral encephalomyelitis that principally affects carnivores and bats, although any mammal can be affected. Pathogenesis of rabies europe pmc article europe pubmed. Pathogenesis of rabies virus infection in dogs clinical. The virus is commonly transmitted via saliva that contaminates bites, scratches, and wounds, and, recently, via mucosal exposure.
Pathogenesis of rabies infection, pathogenesis of rhabdoviruses. Asaresult ofinvestigations carried outduringthe past 10years onthepathogenesis ofpoliomyelitis, it became essential to reconsider also the problem of the pathogenesis of rabies. Studies of rabies pathogenesis began in 1804, when zinke took a small brush and transmitted rabies by swabbing the saliva of a rabid dog onto some fresh wounds he. Schematic of dynamics of rabies virus pathogenesis. Pathogenesis of rabies table 1 sparing effect of removing portions of sciatic andor saphenous nerves on outcome of infection in animals inoculated in the footpad with rabies virusa neurectomy sciatic nerve only sapherious nerve only sciatic and saphenous nerves controls mice guineapigs rats hamsters foxes dogs cvs s lep. When the virus is 1 introduced through a bite, it begins to replicate in the skin or muscle tissue. The mechanism of how rabies infection induces neurological dysfunction in the. Enright 3 1 from the department of epidemiology and preventive medicine, school of veterinary medicine, university of california, davis, california 95616, u. Studies on the pathogenesis of rabies behaviour ofthe virus in the cns in the initial experiment, 50 mice were infected with 1600 ld50 by the intracerebral route.
Viral and rickettsial zoonoses branch, division of viral diseases, center for infectious diseases, centers for disease control. Murphy division o viral diseases, centers for disease control, atlanta, ga 30333 usa after devoting four years to the study of rabies, pasteur said. Manjunatha reddyd, shibani pandaa and kuldeep dhama a adivision of pathology, icarindian veterinary research institute, bareilly. Rabies disease, etiology and pathogenesis veterinary office of. It is the member of the family rhabdoviridae and the genus lyssavirus. Rabies typically has its greatest effect on the brain. Recent findings indicate that in addition to the rv g protein viral elements that regulate gene expression, especially expression of the l gene, are also likely to play a role in. Recovery has been reported in only a few patients, most of whom were infected with bat rabies virus variants, and has been associated with promptness of host immune response and spontaneous immune virus clearance. Pdf rabies is a zoonotic, fatal and progressive neurological infection caused by rabies virus of the genus lyssavirus and family.
Comparative pathogenesis of rabies in bats and carnivores. From the experimental observations it can be concluded that the rabies virus travels alongorin thenervesfromtheperipheryto thecentralnervoussystemandvice versa. In contrast, cultures of puri ed hippocampal neurons showed apoptosis in over 90% of. The door to studies of rabies pathogenesis was first opened in 1804 by zinke 3, who experimentally transmitted rabies by swabbing the saliva of rabid dogs onto. Human rabies is a disease with almost 100% fatal outcome death usually after seven to ten days from the start of the symptoms. But also other potential vectors for bartonella transmission, such as ticks and biting flies, have been identified. The causative agent is rabies virus rv, a negativestranded rna virus of the rhabdovirus family. Neuroinvasiveness and neurotropism are the main features that define the pathogenesis of rabies. Clinical stages of rabies can progress from incubation period 5 days. A better understanding of rabies pathogenesis may be helpful in making future advances in the therapy of human rabies. Rabies transmission via transplanted neurologic tissues corneas and solid organs has also been documented. In addition, high titers of rabies virus can be produced in muco. Special issue bats multidisciplinary approach to epizootiology and pathogenesis of bat rabies viruses in the united states j. Pdf rabies epidemiology, pathogenesis, public health concerns.
Rabies is an avertable viral disease caused by the rabid animal to the warm blooded animals zoonotic especially human. Review article rabies epidemiology, pathogenesis, public health concerns and advances in diagnosis and control. This difference in survival was not dependent on the presence of factors in the culture medium. It is usually contracted through a bite from an infected animal, though transmission can occur if the virus is introduced onto any mucous membrane eyes, nose, mouth. Rabies is an almost invariably fatal disease that can present as classic furious rabies or paralytic rabies. By far the predominant target of rabies virus infection in vivo is the neuron. The causative agent is rabies virus rv, a negativestranded rna virus of the. In dogs showing signs, rabies was not invariably fatal. Pathogenesis of rabies rabies is a viral disease which affects all mammals. Mcclure this investigation was supported by the world health organization and by a united states public health service research grant no. Comparative pathogenesis of rabies in bats and carnivores, and implications for spillover to humans lineke begeman, corine geurtsvankessel, stefan finke, conrad m freuling, marion koopmans, thomas muller, tom j h ruigrok, thijs kuiken batacquired rabies is becoming increasingly common, and its diagnosis could be missed partly because its clinical. Figure 1 depicts an idealized outline of dynamics of rabies virus pathogenesis in the presence and absence of pepmediated immune responses. Rupprecht1 1 division of highconsequence pathogens and pathology, centers for disease control and prevention. The results indicate conclusively that rabies virus is ordinarily transmitted from the site ofexposure to the central nervous system via the peripheral nerves but that.
The commonest mode of transmission in man is by the bite of a rabid animal or the contamination of scratch wounds by virus infected saliva. Use of a reduced 4dose vaccine schedule for postexposure. It affects all warmblooded animals and the disease is prevalent throughout the. Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease and it is transmitted by bites of a rabid animal. Acip, cdc, recommendations to prevent human rabies, vaccines, viral pathogenesis, surveillance in the united states, confirmed human cases in the u. Author summary lyssavirus including rabies still causes devastating loss of human life every year and many of its victims are children under the age of 15.
Fluorescent antibody fa techniques were used, and nerve tissues from infected mice, selected at timed intervals postinfection, were passaged further in mice. Rabies molecular virology, diagnosis, prevention and. Rabies virus from inoculation in the left hind foot pad was detected by fa as. Immediately after challenge 32 ld50 of the injected virus were demonstrable in the brain, but 6 hours later no virus could be found there. The dogs are the major reason behind this, approximately 99% human deaths caused by dogs bites.
The dog is estimated to be responsible for more than 50,000 human deaths annually, posing an extremely serious public and animal health problem. Early studies in rabies pathogenesis, which were performed in order to establish the pathways and rate of viral spread, involved amputation of the tail or leg of an animal proximal to the site of inoculation with a fixed or street wildtype strain of rabies virus. Rabies is a disease affecting all mammals, including man, caused by a virus that attacks the central nervous system, including the brain. The virus enters the body through transdermal inoculation i. The presence of rabies virus in the central nervous system was first detected in the lumbar segment of the spinal cord. In contrast, cultures of puri ed hippocampal neurons showed apoptosis in over 90% of neurons within 3 days. Investigations were made on the spread of fixed rabies virus after its inoculation into the rear footpads of rats.
Most dogs experimentally infected with street rabies virus showed clinical signs of rabies before death, but up to 18% of the dogs died without showing detectable signs of illness. The mechanism of how rabies infection induces neurological dysfunction in the host remains unclear. Rabies virus, epidemiology, transmission and freeroaming. Pathogenesis of rabies table 1 sparing effect of removing portions of sciatic andor saphenous nerves on outcome of infection in animals inoculated in the footpad with rabies virusa neurectomy sciatic nerve only sapherious nerve only sciatic and saphenous nerves controls mice guineapigs rats hamsters foxes dogs cvs s lep cvsstrain, pool 5 cvs cvs. The role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of rabies the pathogenicity of rv correlates inversely with its capacity to induce neuronal apoptosis. Craig hooper,heather carbaugh,zhen fang fu,hilary koprowski, and bernhard dietzschold center for neurovirology, department of microbiology and immunology, thomas jefferson university. Paris 1985 1985, 6 e, 373386 the pathogenesis and pathology of rabies virus infection by f. Rabies is found throughout the world, with the exception of antarctica. Rabies is an almost uniformly fatal neurologic illness caused by rabies virus which is typically transmitted by a bite from a rabid animal two main clinical forms, encephalitic and paralytic characteristic pathologic features include negri bodies, which are intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic inclusions found in neurons of the hippocampus and cerebellum. Rabies epidemiology, pathogenesis, public health concerns and advances in diagnosis and control. Rabies is a zoonotic disease that remains an important public health problem worldwide and causes more than 70,000 human deaths each year.
Rabies infection causes severe neurological dysfunction in the host resulting in paralysis, cognitive deficits and behavioural abnormalities. The molecular biology of rabies consists of bullet shaped virus with helical symmetry that has a length of approximately 180 nm. Symptoms may include unexplained aggression, impaired locomotion, varying degrees of paralysis, and extreme depression or viciousness. Rabies virus, epidemiology, transmission and freeroaming cats. Clinical stages of rabies can progress from incubation period 5. Up to 20% of dogs recovered without any supportive treatment. Jun 21, 2019 rabies is caused by a neurotropic virus of the family rhabdoviridae, genus lyssavirus, subgroup rabies virus. The acip rabies workgroup used an evidencebased process for consideration of a reduced vaccination regimen in human rabies pep. They named human rabies hydrophobia, which means fear of water, a symptom shown by rabies victims.
Rabies is a severe viral infection of the brain and spinal cord that is transmitted by infected animals. The authors have investigated the spread of fixed and street strains of rabies virus from the site of injection to the central nervous system and salivary glands in various animal species. Rabies control units in india launched by agriculture ministry of india in 6th five year plan aiming 100%rabies free india by th 5 year plan 30 rabies control units where set up overall chargesenior officer of animal husbandry dept each unitveterinary surgeon,supervisor,10 dog catchers each unit provided with a diesel van. Rupprecht1 1 division of highconsequence pathogens and pathology, centers for disease control and prevention, atlanta, ga, usa 2 united states. Rabies is a zoonotic, fatal and progressive neurological infection caused by rabies virus of the genus lyssavirus and family rhabdoviridae. Nevertheless, it has been shown that rabies virus can infect myocytes before the virus infection reaches neurons in the spinal cord or dorsal root ganglia 1, 2. The causative agent of rabies is rabies virus rv, a negativestranded rna virus of the rhabdovirus family. The existence of subpopulations with different biological properties within the cvs24 strain of rabies virus has profound implications for the pathogenesis of rabies virus.
Studies on the pathogenesis of fixed rabies virus in rats. Rhabdovirus, lyssavirus genus the family rhabdoviridae consists of more than 185 different viruses isolated from both plants and animals. P comparative pathogenesis of rabies and rabieslike. Get a printable copy pdf file of the complete article 1. The virus is usually transmitted to humans by infected saliva through the bite of a rabid animal. Pathogenesis of rabies virus infection in dogs makonnen fekadu. Rv pathogenesis, like that of other viruses, is a multigenic trait. In developing countries, the primary source of transmission to humans is the dog. Rabies virus is an enveloped, singlestranded rna virus with bullet shaped or rodshaped morphology. The dogs are the major reason behind this, approximately 99% human deaths caused by. The pathogenesis and pathology of rabies virus infection. Rabies is a central nervous system cns disease that is almost invariably fatal.
Introduction dogs are the principal transmitter of rabies to man and animals in most countries of africa, asia and south america, where they are. Related articles, links transmission experiments with bat rabies isolates. In most cases the disease is transmitted via the bite of rabid animals which shed infectious virus with their saliva. Oct 24, 2019 acip, cdc, recommendations to prevent human rabies, vaccines, viral pathogenesis, surveillance in the united states, confirmed human cases in the u. Transmission and pathogenesis rabies bulletin europe. The greeks called rabies lyssa or lytta, which means frenzy or madness. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Rabies pathogenesis 268 ac jackson spinal cord cultures did not survive more than 2 days. By far the predominant target of rabies virus infection in vivo is the neuron 1. Viral mechanisms that have evolved to minimise damage to the cns but.
These studies indicated that 4 vaccine doses in combination with rabies immune globulin rig elicited adequate. Rabies occurs in more than 150 countries and territories. In addition, high titers of rabies virus can be produced in mucogenic acinary cells of the salivary glands during the final phase. Rabies virus structure and pathogenesis learn microbiology.363 235 404 591 1127 537 1238 1605 1027 1635 1592 87 279 246 594 242 122 510 1198 193 1286 1305 1189 1259 542 390 127 793 167 1225 1457 1408 102 633 1308 48 1196 689 1461 354 256 262 983 1492 1027 1195 654